Letter of Honorary Red Flag
Communist Party of Kampuchea's
Male and Female Cadres and all
cooperative farmers in the districts of Prasot (Eastern Zone), Kampong Tralach
(Western Zone) and Tram Kak (Southwest Zone)
Unofficial translation by Bunsou Sour
Documentation Center of
In order to encourage the active involvement of the masses
to achieving the tasks of defending country, continuing and building socialist
revolution with the speed of great leap forwards in consecutive years, the
Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, hereby decides that any
district with the best qualifications in terms of defending the country,
continuing and building the socialist revolution, is entitled to be awarded
Honorary Red Flag.
In 1976, when we have just come out of the war, there were
shortages of anything. In the face of it, all bases, entities, and ministries
upheld the flag of combat, while storming attacks to vigorously fulfil the
party's tasks, with the spirit of high devotion. As a result, the political
tasks of all fields set for 1976 was achieved with maximum quality, including
national defense, protection of our revolutionary outcomes, continuation and
building of socialist revolution. Obviously, a concrete foundation was laid for
all bases, entities, and ministries to move forward to achieving political tasks
of 1977 with great victory in all fields.
In the great revolutionary movement throughout the country
in 1976, the party had observed and noted three districts, which can be
considered as a role model in the three fields—defense, continuation and
construction of socialist revolution.
The three districts are:
The district of Prasot, Eastern Zone;
The district of Kampong Tralach, Western Zone; and
The district of Tram Kak,
Exemplary fields of production and settlement of problems arising from
people's living conditions. The fact is that, these three districts are poor,
having farming soil with less quality. Villagers had been living in poor
conditions since the old regimes. However, their rice production climaxed as a
result of the implementation of the party's 1976 plan. Sufficient seeds were
well prepared, problems of people's living were tackled, while much a mount of
rice went to the state.
2. Exemplary stand: Independence, self-reliance in fulfilling the tasks of
building socialism, in order to achieve the party's plan of three tons per
3. Exemplary stand of socialist revolution: Good work in this field. Active
involvement and deep engagement in class struggle in the whole districts,
especially in the party.
4. Exemplary stand of collectivism, devotion, consciousness of broad
solidarity, both in the frameworks of district, region, and zone.
In recognition thereof, the CPK's Central Committee,
decides to award Honorary Red Flag 1976 to these three districts.
II. Honorary Red
Respected and Beloved male and female cadres and all
cooperative farmers of the districts of Prasot, Kampong Tralach and Tram
In 1976, which had just passed by, all of you, both cadres,
male and female cadres and cooperative farmers, heightened our spirit of sever
struggle with the stand of independence and self-mastery in breaking obstacles
of all kinds. Eventually, you all have your jobs well done in the fields of
national defense, protection of our revolutionary outcomes, continuation and
construction of the socialist revolution. This make the three districts of yours
enjoy rapid progress, which is qualified as model of 1976 for the whole country,
aiming to provoke a movement committed to achieve the party's 1977 plan with the
speed of great leap forwards in all fields.
1. Exemplary fields of production and settlement of
problems arising from
people's living conditions. The fact is that these three districts were poor,
having farming soil with less quality. Villagers had been living in poor
conditions since the old regimes. However, their rice production climaxed
as a result of the implementation of the party's 1976 plan. Sufficient seeds
were prepared, problems of people's living were tackled, while much a
mount of rice went to the state.
2. Exemplary stand: Independence, self-reliance in fulfilling the tasks of
building socialism, in order to achieve the party's plan of three tons per
3. Exemplary stand of socialist revolution: Good work in this field. Active
involvement and deep engagement in class struggle in the whole districts,
especially in the party.
4. Exemplary stand of collectivism, devotion, consciousness of broad
solidarity, both in the frameworks of district, region, and zone.
This is a prominent victory of your comrades. Also, it is
the prominent victory for our people as a whole, our army, our revolution and
This is a significant contribution to the promotion of
country defense, socialist revolutionary movement and construction of the
socialist revolution, settlement of problems arising from the people's
Therefore, the CPK's Central Committee would like to
appreciate with revolutionary sentiment—touched and warm—to your cadres, and in
recognition thereof, award Honorary Red Flag 1976 to all of you.
Your districts have received the Honorary Red Flag 1976
from the party. This is a great honor for our party, our cooperative workers and
farmers of the whole country as well as our army to award your comrades. It does
imply that your tasks have been finished by this moment. All beloved comrades
have to further extend your exemplary qualifications by:
Strengthen and extend the 1976 triumph of yours, by drawing on the past
experiences in political, ideological, and organization fields, force
distribution, technical work, defense tasks, continuation and construction of
socialist revolution, etc.
Further strengthen and extend the stand of collectivism, socialism,
self-mastery, high spirit of revolutionary responsibility, stand of overcoming
obstacles of any sorts, for the sake of more successes. In doing so, there must
be firm stand, constant revolutionary politeness, thorough internal solidarity
and solidarity with other bases.
Model upon the general revolutionary heroism of our people, cooperative
workers and farmers. Our army's valiancy is also to be copied. By doing so, your
comrades will improve yourselves rapidly in the party's political, ideological
and organizational fields for the sake of your beloved comrades' district
progress following the plan of 1977 and the years to come.
Based on your comrades' basic qualifications, combined with the active
engagement, comrades have to achieve the party's 1976 plan of 3-6 tons per
hectare without fail. Surplus would also be awarded.
With the warmest and deepest revolutionary sentiment, the
CPK's Central Committee would like to wish your comrades consecutive successes
in fulfilling the brilliant tasks assigned by the party.
The CPK's Central Committee is strongly convinced that
other districts and bases will achieve the party's 1977 plan in all fields, like
the districts of Prasot, Kampong Tralach, and Tramkak, and even bring about more
improvement. Accept, comrades, our greetings with the warmest revolutionary
June 30, 1977
Central Committee of the Communist Party
Drawing experiences on the political, ideological and organizational stands in
the great revolutionary movement of the first six months of 1977
Requests of this text:
1. The great revolutionary movement under the leadership of
the Communist Party of Kampuchea in the past 6 months met a number of problems,
enriching us with even more knowledge of political, ideological and
organizational stands in defending the country, protecting the authority of the
revolutionary workers and farmers for the continuation and construction of the
socialist revolution. We altogether do the best to conduct research and shed
more light to the main lessons, which are either principles or guidelines for
the future practice.
Draw on the experiences and find more directions to attack
enemies for defending the country, protect the revolutionary authority of
workers and farmers of the party. Draw on the better experiences and find
directions which motivate the construction of socialism, significantly the
implementation of the 1977 plan, in the fields of country building and
settlement of people's living problems. We have to find out keys to them so that
more storming attacks would be launched.
We have to be clear on the issues of leadership.
Leadership in the party, in all
bases—from the highest to the lowest levels.
2. In order to be well prepared for the ultimate attacks in
the second half of 1977, leading to a complete achievement of the 1977 plan in all fields.
Therefore, to reach this goal, we raise a variety of
issues, which have already been done in 1977, for examination:
We draw on:
Tasks of defending the country, [and] revolutionary authority of workers
and farmers of the party.
Tasks of making socialist revolution.
Tasks of building socialism, achieving 3-6 tons per hectare.
I. Tasks of
defending the country of Democratic Kampuchea, protecting the revolutionary
outcomes, the revolutionary authority, the party, the classes, people and the
revolution army of Kampuchea.
Country defense—External Affairs.
As far as the country defense is concerned, in general, we
are in complete control and self-mastery of all boundaries: land boundary [and]
territorial water, sharing borders with other foreign countries.
The main reasons that our collective people and
revolutionary army achieved this work:
[They] have implemented correctly and thoroughly according to the party's
political lines on country defense.
[They] have had stand of high revolutionary vigilance toward the
[They] have had correct line of activities in the field of defending the
In the country defense movement, i.e. external affairs, we
perform correctly and thoroughly according to the party's country defense
political lines. The following are our experiences of political and ideological
- Our party, people, and revolutionary army, know even more
clearly the image of the enemies—without any confusion and dubiety. Our stand of
limiting friend-and-enemy is strengthened among our party, people, and
revolutionary army by the way the enemies committed against us: aggression,
expansion, shelling, strafing, espionage, sabotage, stealing of cattle,
annexation of land for cultivation along the border areas.
Based on the vivid definition, we enjoy even more active
wrath-abetting movement towards enemies of our nation, people, revolution,
worker-class, collective socialism, and of the Communist Party of Kampuchea. At
the same time, stand of patriotic
consciousness, loving people, loving the revolution, loving the worker class,
loving the collective socialism and the loving party are strengthened.
[We] become increasingly aware of and adhere to the stand of high
responsibility in the area of defense of the Democratic Kampuchea.
Moreover, going through the country defense movement, certain negative
stands are abolished: middle-of-the-road stand, country defense in an inactive
manner, country construction-ism, seeing no antagonism with the enemies of our
To sum up, our party, people, and revolutionary army manage
to defend the country with complete self-mastery, based on the party's correct
stand and guidelines on country defense.
2. Defending the
country, the revolutionary authority of workers and farmers within the country.
Country defense among the people:
The country defense among the people are moving on track
because of good awareness and implementation of solidarity guideline, [and]
outstanding gathering of party's
forces. More significantly, poor worker and peasant class and middle class
farmers are stronger and extended, becoming a solid foundation for the socialist
[We must] carry out indoctrination on the political and
ideological guidelines among the people, especially those in the local bases.
There appears to be more active in terms of this area. Selection, strengthening
and extending of organizations are smoothly implemented, making the components
among the people become purer.
Meanwhile, [we] settle the problems of people's living step
by step, making the people increase their belief in the party, the revolution
and revolutionary army.
Drawing on our experience, if revolutionary authority in
local bases is settled properly, i.e., if cooperative is strengthened positively
and carefully screened, a maximum of people safeguard will be
Defense inside the party and in our rank
Situation of defense inside the party and in our rank is
much better than before—in terms of both quantity and quality. Obviously, we
have screened the party—from the top to the bottom. Basically, many bases have
already been settled, except some which remains to be done later.
The screening of networks of enemies burrowing inside
improves the quality of the party, revolutionary army, male and female
combatants as well as the quality of a majority of the people, who know the
antagonism between us and enemies and other experiences in eliminating burrowing
enemies and attacking enemies.
Needless to say, the quality of our party increases, both
in political, ideological, and consciousness areas. These experiences should be
further acquired from within our
party, revolutionary army and people in order to wove into a net for defeating
and dealing with burrowing enemies.
However, enemies burrowing inside do not cease to exist
yet. The old enemy networks of all sorts are not completely removed. A few
remains in bases, entities, offices or ministries.
How can we settle the problems?
[We] must hold a clear stand and view that we haven't yet cleaned
burrowing enemies a hundred percent. The remainders enjoy extending
[We] must take absolute measure in zero-tolerance manner and without
The procedure of eliminating enemies burrowing from within
expires four months already. Please be reminded:
Encourage and educate the masses in the party, core organizations,
revolutionary army and among the people so that they are clearly aware of how
the burrowing enemies act. By this way, they will become forces in search of
enemies and attacking enemies. The same applies to each ministry, base, and
army. We move step by step. Wherever measures (of eliminating enemies) are
available, there must be encouragement and education for the masses so that they
become forces in search of enemies and eliminating enemies.
Essence for searching for the burrowing enemies must be the one of the
party's political, ideological and organizational guidelines. Check them up to
make sure they are correct. In this context, what is to be taken as a core? The
answer is the party. Obviously, party center is the core for the whole country.
The same applies to zone, region, district, office, ministry. Each spearhead has
to have its core [forces] in sweeping burrowing enemies away.
CERTAIN EXPEREINCES IN ADDITION TO OURS
FROM APRIL 1977.
1.To be in self-mastery in advance and to take measure on the right
time, there must be a clear view toward the constant antagonism, while holding a
clear view that enemies of all strips have their running-dog agents burrowing
within ourselves. Hold this stand in advance, while having the spirit of high
revolutionary vigilance. And keep track of any small phenomenon.
2. In order to keep an eye on and search for enemies, [we]
must base on our the positive biography, both in a prior and post revolutionary
period. It must consist of personal, social and commercial background. Among
others, the date of entry into the revolution and name of introducers must be
included. We used to work in this field with less attention. This really
affected our party's principles, making the enemies burrowing within [our party]
increased in number. We didn't expect that we paid such less attention. We held
subjective view. Some elements came closer to hold important positions. These
individuals have had connections since 1955. Generally speaking, [they have
been] with the movement for a long time. Yet, we were morally lax in grasping
hold of their histories. We didn't
know their circles before their entry into the revolution.
3. In order to make sure whether they are bad or good
elements, enemies or non-enemies, there must be examination of application of
the party's guidelines. How they practice the party's political guidelines? How
are their political, ideological and organizational realities? How their
implementation of country defense guidelines? How do they work in terms of
socialist revolution [and] construction of the socialism. Left[ism] is wrong;
right[ism] is wrong. One, two, or many leftist activities or systematic rightist
activities cause a problem. Where complicated problems occur consecutively which can not be solved, that is
problem. Consecutively practicing socialist revolution with leftism and rightism
is problem. Moral laxness in practicing the guidelines of the construction of
socialism is problem. Failing to solve the problem of people's living on a
constant basis is problem. Our experiences show:
In certain zones, traitorous elements burrowed from within and
implemented systematic political, ideological and organizational activities in
the wrong ways. They were morally wrong in the systematic manner. Shortcomings
occurred one after another.
There were always disputes among districts, which share the borders with
each other. We knew that there had to be enemies, who, by our assumption, were
From the above experiences, we assume that both the country
defense, socialist revolution, and construction of socialism must be based on
political position, fighting the enemies until gaining victory. If we could not
attack enemies burrowing inside, it does not make sense to win victory in the
field of country defense, socialist revolution [and] construction of socialism.
Only getting rid of enemies
burrowing inside from small and big organizations, do it means that we can
implement the party's guidelines. Real example from 1976 is evident. Therefore,
we must basically rely on the fight against enemies in order to defend the
country, make the socialist revolution and build socialism. Our masses must be
aware of this issue. We must constantly fight the enemies. Fight and then
substitute our core [agents]. Masses can also be our core [agents].
4. Problems arising from our activities of attacking
enemies. Class issue become even more complicated. Many of traitors are petty
bourgeois class. Among which there are a few peasant class, who actually have no
nature of peasants. They become fake petty bourgeoisie, whose performance are
overwhelmed with joy.
In summary, it appears that enemies find it so easy to lure [people] on the petty
bourgeois circle, because such a class enjoy individualism, dogmatism,
resentment, [and] have tendency to confession [admission]. Their speech, even a
word, is always in fluctuating manner.
Other peasants, in bases or ministries, who are also
Some of them have been an enemy agent for long time ago or elements are
by the side of enemies.
Many others are those who are under the control of petty bourgeoisie.
They don't understand; they can not awake, as the petty bourgeoisie always curb
them. The petty bourgeoisie prevent them from enjoying the guidelines, rights,
[and] party's statute.
In other words, petty bourgeoisie are a source easy to be
convinced by enemies. They take the victorious occasion as a time for
over-enjoyment, drinking, in a debauchery manner...
Resentment, in any circumstances, and more or less, makes
ways for enemies to carry out their enticement. The problem is the jealousy
stemming from position promotion in different times and other contradictions.
Taking this opportunity, enemies try to provoke troubles, while petty
bourgeoisie are motivating others to feel resentment toward the
Worse still, it brings about frustration and complicated
situation. It implies that all circumstances in favor of enemies are available.
This is an experience. The petty bourgeoisie [of this kind] include those from
cities, rural areas, those who give up monkhood, or middle-class peasants or
vendor-peasants. Enemies find it harder to entice base people than middle-class.
So, we have to stand firmly on the party's guidelines. Before we implemented the
party's guidelines. But we were morally lax. From now on we have to practice the
party's class guidelines with great quality, tantamount to "great leap
5. Another experience, we have to rely on the masses to
attack enemies. In doing so, masses have to be educated about political and
ideological areas so that enemies could not be broadened.
For example, we have established a new place [of new
elements]. Once we went to that place, we were not able to find all enemies,
while enemies were able to carry out their activities to some degree, as the
masses were not aware of that. We encouraged the masses. As a result, they found
enemies one after another. Therefore, we have to make the masses understand, and
the party have to be the backbone of the masses.
Experiences from another place. We made the masses
convinced. If they were confident in the ministerial committee(s), they would
report to the committees [and] party branches. They did not produce anonymous
reports. Yet, they had to be completely responsible for the reports. Experiences
tell us that bases also can do this job.
Implementation of tasks of the continuation of the party's socialist revolution
We have strengthened and extended our collective socialism.
As the collectivism of proletarian class are not to shake and reject, and due to
the mass movements under the leadership of the party, on the one hand we manage
to control situation where we eliminate all oppressing class, which are becoming
faint gradually. On the other hand, all private regimes can not raise their
heads. They are under the control of the mass movement, who are going deeper.
The tools of the oppressing class, namely currency, market, etc., can not be
returned. The mass movement are in the process of curbing it. This is a
phenomenon, indicating our victory in the continuation of the socialist
revolution. Enemies of all strips are not able to re-exist. Instead, they are on
the way to a complete collapse.
In this situation, we continue to storm attacks to sweep
enemies away. Defeat and attack such enemies as international agents, enemies
burrowing inside, class enemies to a degree that they could not make any
reaction, even a little.
Another advantage is spirit of consciousness inside the
party, the army, poor peasants and lower middle-class farmers and middle-class
farmers. They are satisfied with the socialist revolution. This is the
consciousness of political and ideological areas.
In the last six month, our people worked vigorously with
revolutionary optimism. This is recognized by the way they:
1. have enough to eat, good health and are satisfied with
the collectivism. Moreover, they are enjoying better shelters and medicines for
the safeguards of themselves as well as their children. During the post-war
period, our brothers and sisters see outcomes themselves. That's why the
revolutionary movement in the field of country construction become very active
with revolutionary optimism. They are content to have reservoirs, dams [and]
canals. They witness the accomplishments of themselves and of the poor farmers
and middle-class farmers. They are contented and feel proud. Most of them are
absolute. Poor farmers, lower middle-class farmers and middle-class farmers
general farmers, and even petty landlords who had suffered the war of aggression
are also happy. New components following April 17,  also accept this
In total, 95 per cent acknowledge the collectivism of the
party's proletarian class.
At the same time, shortcomings still occur. People and
[those] in the [revolutionary] rank lack awareness of the brilliant
collectivism. The reasons are:
our party has not encourages the involvement of the local masses;
the enemies in the rank
deviate and indoctrinate wrong concept.
From now on, the revolutionary army, male and female
combatants, young and old, must be educated from the top to the bottom. Their
level for education have to be classified. Education at lower level must be
deeper. In case of mixed components, there must be stretch-out
Dig up people forces for their potential engagement along
with political and ideological indoctrination. Just a meeting a lone will not
do. Indoctrination must be the must.
Our second shortcoming is that food ration of our people in
this raining season is reduced a little bit. It makes people feel upset to some
degree. Of course, we have to solve this problem. It must be done as our
collectivism is fantastic. Our mobile units can be moved to anywhere. They can
build reservoir, plant potatoes, banana, etc. However, the management of forces
are not appropriate yet. Obviously, not all of the forces are used.
The fact that enemies burrow within and destroy us must be
found. Yet, another problem is that we are not able to cope with this problem,
although we have ability to do so. Guidelines on effective implementation and
guidelines on effective combat are also not well performed. These must be
examined and experience must be drawn.
To review, does it effect the field of guidelines on
activities or ideological responsibility of the people? Can our shortcomings be
worked out? The main issue lies in the collective leadership. The drought in our
country is not as sever as in other countries. Irrigation is also the same case.
There must be consecutive farming cycles here, regardless who small the farming
is. By doing so, there will be success. In some places, they don't do farming,
although water is available. They wait for big farming, which needs too much
water that we cannot supply. Instead, if one or two hectare of land is
cultivated subsequently, there will be no problem of water. In other places,
there is enough water, but transplanted rice seedlings are not enough. It is
simply because of deviation from collective leadership.
Some other places try not to save the water, while the
water is available. This is a point to transform disadvantage into advantage.
This is just an issue of rice farming. The same case applies to diversification
Therefore, there must be solution
based on this guidelines—doing farming, both big, medium and small size. Other
crops have to be planted. Each house can have 4-5 clumps of sugarcane, and 3-4
clusters of banana. The possibilities vary according to the size of farmland. By
doing this, houses will be surrounded with a variety of crops. It's not hard to
do so. It can be divided into two types: cooperative and individual plantation.
This will contribute to improving living standard, leading to the extension of
Why strengthening and extending collective? The answer is
to build the country, gain support from foreign friends and to defend the
This requires collective leadership. Sometimes commune and
district lack [leadership]. So, they need comments from region, which, in case
of need, requires comments from zone.
III. The party's
tasks of construction of socialism in all fields
In the past six months, construction of socialism enjoyed
much progress in all fields: agriculture, industry, social affairs, health,
culture and training and education. Our success is classified as a network of
"Great leap forward". Obviously, many unit throughout the country have achieved
their plan in this way. However, a few unit haven't done as good. They was so
The unit moving with the speed of great leap forward is the
unit responsible for irrigation system. Once we achieve plan of each base, we
have to move on to another. We build irrigation system in a strategic way to
supply one or two cycles of harvest per year. It is really strategic for
cultivation. This is the strong movement in the history of Cambodia. "Strong"
here implies the gathering of many forces in just a short term for this year's
harvest. This is our good, basic point.
This year's work will determine the 1978's plan. There will
be no difficulties. By this current, in 1980 we will have enough water to
guarantee two harvest cycles per year. Early this year sees difficulties in the
area of water. However, we still can achieve our goal as we have irrigation
position. To see its advantages, the irrigation must be protected and extended.
In each zone, there are many major dams. The whole country also has such number
and quantity. We have never expected that our people can do such a thing in just
a short period of time. We build the dams, each of which is as big as or bigger
than Baray Toek Thla. We made it
only three or four months. That's why our people strongly
Besides, there were many other units, including Sre Ambil,
some dry season rice paddies, rubber plantations, section for producing
water-pump. These sections were moving to some extend with the speed of great
leap forward, by achieving the 1977 plan. Some units produced much more than
others, while some units achieved the 6-month plan.
Some sections of social affairs [and] culture moved with
the speed of great leap. For example, we managed to reduce infectious disease,
malaria, by 70 per cent. This is not the result of equipment, rather it is
because of our quick mass movement.
Our technical section also enjoy such rapid progress,
namely section of electricity, chemistry,.... This leads us to believe that our
children are logically able to grasp hold of technical aspect for building the
We believe that we will be able to build up economic
foundation with independence and self-mastery.
However, in constructing socialism in all fields for this
six month, the 3-6 ton per hectare is still problem because self-mastery does
not exist yet, and due to objective and subjective factors.
For objective factor, natural phenomenon—drought—has a
maximum negative impact not only on our rice this early year, but also on other
Yet, we have to raise our shortcomings for discussion.
Obstacles produce experiences. Natural obstacle is a good lesson. Do not take it
as a bad lesson and let it go unsettled. If we don't solve this problem, we can
not prevail over the movement. National obstacles do not exist only in our
country. Other countries have to overcome the same ones, which are even bigger
than ours. It affects a series of sections, agriculture, industry....They solve
this problem, which appears to be harder. Nature changes a lot. This fact makes
us consider this problem as a lesson. Settle the problem of water on time and
extend this field until we are in self-mastery.
Initially and strategically we have to settle the problem
of water supply.
Second, make good use of the existing water. Take
opportunity to get it. Don't just wait and use it when they are sufficiently
[Early] this year, we dared not to sow seeds for fear that
there would be no water [rain]. So, when water is available now, there are no
rice seedlings. It means there was no opportunity for farming. Therefore, to
build up socialism as planed, self-mastery in the area of water supply is vital.
We must settle this problem in the long run.
This year although there is negative impacts on the plan of
3-6 ton per hectare, we are not hopeless, as it doesn't mean we have no water
foundation. Intensive attacks have to be made in all forms, ranging from small,
medium to big, and [we must be] ready for the self-mastery by the end of this
year. There must be determination on where should long-term rice be cultivated,
where to have two time harvest per year, although it appears to have rush
period. Start transplanting rice seedlings in January. It is not late to harvest
two times in 1978. So, there must be readiness. If we farm mid-term rice, we
will harvest two and a half times per year. Thus, it will do. But, it will take
two additional months from 1978. It means that 1977 will stretch to 14 months.
This is our view on strategic plan. In doing so, seeds and forces have to be
prepared. Plan to work in sections, fields, have to be clear. There is no need
to prepare these things by the end of each harvest season. There must be
preparation in advance. This is a main issue, as it relates to the plan of 3-6
ton per hectare. If it is evident that early in farming season there is no
water, we can not let this problem go. Meanwhile, where there is not enough water for rice
farming, there must be other choices—planting potatoes, giant gourd, gourd,
Our party prioritizes the movement of
achieving the 1977 plan in order to upgrade the quality of the party itself. Of
course, there are obstacles, and they will not cease to exist. We, altogether,
have to tackle the problems. Guidelines for storming attacks must be set; do
whatever needs to be done for reaching the goal of 3-6 tons per
Generally speaking, in the past six months, our people's living
conditions are improved, meaning the party's regiment are implemented. So, it
implies that there are active movements for socialist revolution and
construction of socialism.
In comparison, it is better than last
year. However, referring to the party's assignment to storm attack in farming
rainy season rice, there are shortcomings. This fact, on the one hand, may
affect the momentum of farming movement, and on the other hand, may affect
health to some degree.
How to settle? Solve [the problems]
throughout the country, starting from each base. It must be done without fail,
for the near future and far future.
Try harder to solve these raised
problems. In doing so, there must be force division based on correct guidelines
of activities, which are in the following:
Strengthen the responsibility for the people's living
Organize commanders of all levels in a good manner; and
Assign forces in accordance
with the correct guidelines of activities: putting aside any unnecessary tasks,
while prioritizing issue of food supply.
Therefore, any forces unnecessary must be taken. The whole
country consists of not less unnecessary forces. In some places, at this
movement of speaking, there are still people clearing up grass in front of their
homes. These forces can be used for the transplantation of potatoes. The same
applies to other ministries, meaning that crop growing is not really active
[Our] mission statement is "Anything unnecessary is to be
taken out." Construction of dikes is to be continued. However, the guidelines of
constructing dikes must also be correct. Our request for the time being is just
to curb the water. Therefore, there should be a small-scale construction
movement. A maximum of force must be saved for supplying rice paddies with
water, growing potatoes, banana, and other crops.
Growing of such industrial crops as quinine [and] a plan
for producing balm, can be reduced
for a period of time.
The issue of dikes, reservoirs shall be implemented in the
same way. [Our] request is to curb the water for a while. Decoration and
cleaning will be done later. A limited number of people shall be reserved for
finishing the remaining works to be done and for their preservation. Most of the
forces have to be sent to production areas, such as growing potatoes, pumpkins,
giant gourds, gourds, etc. The rest will be well prepared for plowing, so that
we can be in self-mastery and in good position of intensive farming when water
is available. Therefore, there must be inspection of each ministry, work site,
[and] cooperative. Any usable forces in these respective units have to be taken
for food production. Don't use too much forces at a place.
Construction of canals, dikes, [and] reservoirs shall be
processed at an ordinary speed, while final decoration shall be suspended. This
will waste time for this rainy season rice farming. Work intensively on the
growing of crops: potatoes, banana and pumpkins, in addition to rice farming.
Weaving tasks also need less speed. Weaving scarves will be okay. But, weaving
burlap must be suspended, as we still have some. If elderly men and women
jointly grow crops, there will be not less outcomes.
Thus, there are leading committee and organization of
forces. These kinds of things must not be promulgated as circular; [We] must go
down to the base directly.
By doing so, there will be settlement, as our situation is
not so worse that it can not be worked out. [One of] our mission statement is to
storm attack with people's war. By this way, our people as well cadres can draw
on this experience. Main stand for resolution is self-support. All of party's
forces, people, and revolutionary army must be boiling and very brave. First
there will be obstacles to be overcome. Yet, after that there will be a large
quantity of crops existing everywhere.
Self-experiment stems from self-conditioning. If we just
wait for food [without any action], there will be no experience. The same
applies to the whole country and each grass root.
To suit the real situation now, [we] must not do only
long-term rice farming alone. There
should be farming of mid-term rice for eating, while doing long-term rice
for exportation. It takes twelve months to have the long-term rice
V. Situation of the party's leadership
In the last six months, our party had overcome intensive
attacks in all fields: military, the rear, farming, social and cultural affairs,
ministries, offices, etc. These movements make the party condition [itself] to
much extend. Moreover, the revolutionary movement enables our party to
distinguish two aspects:
First, it shows the trail of traitors burrowing within the party for many
years. Destructive elements, no-good element, who do not belong to any running
dogs but affect the revolution, also abort as a result of our six-month
movement. The movement itself is under the process of screening. Based on [our]
observation and experience, such elements will continue to exist.
Second, however, the party enjoys another degree of quality in the first
semester of 1977. By screening traitorous elements and bad elements, the party enjoys relief from pain of abscess
[and] venom. Our party is very healthy. Good party candidates and cadres
upgrades the political, ideological and organizational quality. Experiences for
the movement are also gained. When seeing enemies as network and seeing
activities of each network, there must be chains of activities and organization.
This is for combat. Many vigorous struggle on several battles bring us so much
experiences and quality of the party's leadership at all levels, in terms of
political, ideological and organizational quality. The whole country makes such
a progress. We implement the party's guidelines based on the forces of the
masses and as a result good resolution is shown. Zone, region, district [and]
base enjoy the same quality.
In the field of defense, much more improvement is made.
Before there were complicated issues, when enemies burrowed to destroy and
deviate the party's guidelines. While we are going to do this, they intend to do
that, by destroying us subsequently.
By working this out,
our party is stronger, and in the process of strengthening and
What experiences result from the six-month combat of
construction of party's leadership?
1. It makes us more interested in the class guidelines of
the party in organizational field. The six-month experience shows even clearer
that local class [grassroots] are more steady than middle and upper classes.
Middle class are less steady than local class. Up do now, in all party branches,
the local class are at their geographical position, meaning that they don't
abandon their place. Most of middle class become enemy networks burrowing within
[their place], make thing more complicated, opposed to the party and the people,
and prevent the movement [from progress], intentionally or
Therefore, from now on, there must be better implementation
of the party's guidelines. The party always raises the issue of class
guidelines. Obviously, in the rank of leadership, local class increase in
number. The base itself also enjoys leadership role. However, this is not
enough. The future needs more extension of the local class. The base- class
ensure classness, class standpoint of the party's workers, and overcome several
movements with obstacles, both subjective and objective, meaning that they do
not overcome with complicated issues one after another.
Local class must be allowed to extend themselves in the
leadership rank. They are needed, as they are better guarantors of the party's
policy than the party's ideological and organizational fields.
Ideological field and standpoint are different in the
party, although [they are] with the movement subsequently. Local class have
their trend toward local class themselves, rather than middle class. Thus, three
must be much more communications among the local class. As for the middle class,
in the face of party's consecutive education, indoctrination of sentiment toward
local class, they are still not stronger than the base- class.
So, it is clear whether which class are more steady. The
petty bourgeois and poor farmers enjoy their respective improvement. But, there
must be strong [stand.] If not so, the petty bourgeois will conquer. This is
class struggle inside the party. However, the class struggle must be based on
natural sentiment and stand of every individual.
If the local class hold core position, there will be much
guarantee. With the local class difficult and favorable circumstances are
nothing different. Their fighting with enemies are more absolute, while
production movement of them are also more absolute. This make us understand
further, for the sake of unity. However, the local class used to work with
non-local class, who did not experience with this movement.
2. In the first half of 1977, we manage to sweep clean
networking enemies burrowing within. Drawing from such experience, [we] do not
just see movement; [their] biographies are also our target. Who contact who,
with introduction from who. [By this way] we know [their] circles, sources,
where we can conduct [our] search. Thus, biographies must be examined thoroughly
and consecutively. Once [their] biographies are in a firm grasp, we will be
confident in the quality of our cadres and party candidates.
With the scope of our revolutionary tasks, our party
candidates have many shortcomings, although the quality of our party
How to settle this problem? What strategic ways to be found
Based on the [current] situation of our
party, a part drops from the movement, while another part is moving forward.
Some are moving very fast, while some other moving with medium speed. These
kinds of [people] must be conditioned as "new" cadres. "New" here implies "new"
charge [and] new duty. Therefore, in the whole party, from the top to branches,
there must be selection of the current cadres according to their qualifications.
For example, in the branches of district, region, zone or in the army, more work
must be increased if our cadres improve in terms of quality. This is one of
[our] strategies. This involves not only organizational field, but also
ideological field—clean-cut standpoint.
Another way to solve the problem is to
recruit new party candidates, as we have outlined. What are the possibilities of
recruiting new party candidates so far? There are two aspects.
Difficult aspects for extension: Certain core organizations receive
negative impact from burrowing enemy. For this case, we do not recruit yet. But
it is better for recruitment of core organization to start from the masses. This
way yields better result than recruitment from core organization to the
Wherever there are control of correct party organizations, there must be
attention on the extension, as sources of the previous recruitment are not bad.
If so, we have some possibilities of extending our party candidates. However,
there must be more thorough examination. Extension should be made, that is to
recruit the masses to join the core organizations as they are new forces without
entanglement in enemy activities or no-good elements.
statement for 1977
The mission statement for 1977 is "Storming constant attacks with the great movement
of the masses at the speed of great leap forward."
The basic merits of the statement are in the following:
Awareness infiltrates into the party, people, telling them to implement
tasks, both big and small, at the speed of great leap forward.
Obviously, there are active involvement in all fields. Most of the fields
have achieved their goals. This is
a real great leap forward, in such fields as building reservoirs, producing salt
and agricultural tools, and on the issue of getting rid of malaria, etc.
It shows that the statement raised is the standpoint and
guidelines for future operation. There will be need for education and propaganda
on this slogan. Posters on this statement shall be made for public
Yet, shortcomings still exist.
1. The impression on this slogan is still limited. Weak
memory still prevails. It is not as strong as a force of fire to push cadres and
party candidates to work closely with the masses. It is for this reason that
there still some places moving very slow, while other place operating in an
ordinary manner. The most impressive example is when we met obstacles—
subjective or objective, big or small, there were complicated issues in certain
areas. Some places managed to overcome. Some did not.
Obviously, we saw two weaknesses. One was the problem of
early rice and the other was food for the people. These two fields did not move
with the speed of great leap forward yet. The same weaknesses happened to other
fields. For example, the people clothes. There are, of course, cloth, needle,
thread, and sawing machines. But in some places there were weaknesses in solving
the problems of supplying people
with clothes. Crop diversification was still not at the speed of great leap
forward—that is making the villages full of crops. Some villages were full with
new crops, although water condition is not favorable. Some other villages had
had nothing than shelters and the sky. There was no crop. They did not lack
forces. Both old and young people were at the rear. There was lack of drinking
water for both people and animals. Lack of well, lack of pond. We give examples
relating to the putting of the slogan into practice. A portion did with great
leap forward, while the other lacked awareness of the slogan in the concrete
application in each spearhead.
Why? What experiences we have had on these issues? What are
1. Awareness about the slogan "great leap
2. Our main battles succeeded objectively: water, rice
Most of sub-battles did not manage to do so.
[They] were not aware of the slogan of great leap forward.
That was why the rears rarely achieved the goals set. The weaknesses occurred in
the areas of [making] wells for drinking and crop diversification. If the rear
does not move at the speed of great leap forward, it may affect the battlefront.
[Educational campaign was] done for one time, as the rear failed to follow
This is a real experience.
What causes the rear less dynamic?
Management of forces at the rear is not correct yet, due to
the following factors:
Don't know how to manage the forces.
There is no core [member].
For instance, some places saw active movement in farming.
However, there was no management, no command at the rear, while many forces were
free at home. That is the reason.
Thus, there must be organization. Core members are not
necessary to be party candidates or core organizations. Good masses, who are
engaged in the labor work, can be our [core] members. Among 10 or 20, there can
be 3 to be selected as a committee. By this way, there will be good male and
female combatants. Of course, there will be no good elements. But, their
activities will show their nature. Even children can be considered as core
members among their rank. Only this way can we build up party candidates [and]
core members, as they are purely from the movement.
By achieving this plan, both the front and the rear will be
strong. The front implies rice, while the rear implies vegetation and growing of
trees for fruits jack-fruit and mango. They are not for additional beauty to
people's shelters, but for the health and living of the people.
THE PARTY'S INSTRUCTION ON A VARIETY OF MAIN ISSUES
IN THE SECOND HALF OF 1977
instruction on a variety of main issues in the second half of 1977 is completely
based on the party's political assignments for 1977, additional to the party's
instruction in April 1977.
This instruction requests promotion of implementation of
1977 plan assigned by the party toward a hundred success or more in the second
half of 1977.
The main issues are in the following:
I. Paying more
attention to the extension of the party's leadership
In the first half of 1977, the party experienced the
Certain elements inside the party, from the top to the
bottom, fell from the great revolutionary movement of the masses. They were all
strips of enemies agents, burrowing within our party for a long time. Meanwhile,
were destructive elements against our party, revolution and the people, acting
in higher and lower ranks.
Many party candidates were absolute. They did not fall into
the said categories. In stead, they upgraded the quality of their revolution in
political, ideological and organizational fields. They are qualified to fulfil
the party's tasks.
This is our improvement and great success. On the one hand,
we basically managed to eliminate enemies burrowing within the party. On the
other hand we managed to purify and make the party active.
However, through the experience, our party are well aware
that the enemies still exist. If we let them stay further, they will be able to
extend their networks in the position of class enemies, enemies of the
revolution and enemies of our nation. Therefore, our party resolves to continue
to heighten the revolutionary vigilance and gather force in the whole party,
along with revolutionary army and cooperative workers in order to hunt them
down. By doing so, our party will be purer and may be purest. There will be
neither old nor new enemies of this kind. Such measures must be taken deeply and
constantly for our party to be more active in its leadership role in the
revolutionary movement of all fields. Our slogans are: "Clean party means strong
party, strong revolutionary movement." "Clean party center means strong
leadership of revolutionary movement in the whole country." "Clean party branch
of zone means strong party branch of the zone, and strong revolutionary movement
at village level"...etc.
These slogan makes us examine and decide whether our
revolutionary movement is strong or not. The only factor which determines the
strength and weakness is the leadership of the party either throughout the
country or the party at base level, big and small. In other words, in order for
the party to be strong, the party must be clean first. (Clean in terms of
political, ideological and organizational standpoints). For the party to be
clean, there must be no enemy elements inside the party, who are against and
destroy the party. In order for the party to be clean there must be one single
political line, single ideological and organizational line. Such criteria as
activity and active combat in the party single line are also
In view of the situation where there are shortages of
cadres and party candidates, in comparison to the great revolutionary movement,
huge and deep, at the present and for the future, the party decides that the
party must be absolutely strengthened on time, by on the one hand, paying attention to the
strengthening and extending this area among base forces of the party: that is to
recruit party candidates, core organizations and progressive masses, who are
nurseries of base sources, providing cadres outside of the party and inside of
our party. The following steps should be followed:
1. Cadres of all levels, from the top to the district,
army, ministry, office, must be strengthened and recruited more. Good elements
must be recruited in a timely manner, either one or two, in order to increase
leadership forces at each level. "Good [elements]" here is referred to basic
classness of those who have experienced consecutive revolutionary movements,
grasped hold of and practiced the political, ideological and organizational
lines, especially those who have overcome obstacles, small and big. "Good" in
terms of morality of living. "Good" in terms of clear biography easy for
examination from start to finish. Once we have recruited new forces at each
party branch subsequently, the leading forces will increase remarkably, in terms
of quantity and quality.
2. Pay attention to recruitment among the revolutionary
movement of the masses.
Progressive masses of local class. Recruit them and give them clear
assignments, either in cooperative, factory, office, ministry, or
For example, in cooperative, [we] have to put them at the
spearhead of fertilizer, taking care of cattle, growing crops, vegetation,
warehouse, barn, plowing tools, ranks, knife, axe, and other agricultural tools,
plowing, sowing rice, irrigation, medical field, children, baby, hygiene, etc.
Train them in the way that they can try and work at the same time. In the course
of learning and working, they should be selected as core members on after
another. They must be strengthened. [If] the selected core members are from
outside of the party, they must certify at [our] present, especially claim to
serve for a long, strategic term.
- Based on the core members, who are progressive masses, there must be
selection of good elements in order to extend our core organizations (Yuvakk and
Backbone). These core organizations come basically from good sources, classness
and revolutionary movement.
- Based on the strengthened and extended core organizations, there must be
attention to recruiting new candidates, and they must be selected the soonest
through the above structure.
Our request is that from now up to mid-1978 or end of 1978,
leading forces must be strong. Their number must be increased (from the central
to district, base, army and leaders in ministry). Only by this way can we push
the revolutionary movement of 1977-78 toward healthy situation of
In the meantime, we also must pay attention to build up
forces of second category (progressive masses, core organization, and new party
candidates). Make them active so that they can extend themselves on time. And in
mid-1978 or by 1979, our cooperatives, factories, and army throughout the
country will mostly be sharp and have basic forces worth of quality and
quantity. With forces of such quantity, by mid-1978 or by the end of 1979 the
base forces in combination with forces from the higher level can produce a
strong leadership for our revolutionary movement from the end of 1978 or early
in 1979 onward.
PRINCIPLES OF FORCE BUILDING
[We] must follow the party's organizational principles and extend
[forces] as many as possible and subsequently.
Must pay attention to extend force as many as possible wherever clean,
belonging to no enemies.
Pay attention to good elements, without any involvement with
Establish precisely those components, cadres or individuals, who are
responsible for such extension, both at zone, region, district, army, or
ministry levels, in order to guarantee the quality of the groups in charge of
this task. Do not just introduce generally, to avoid the existence of either
burrowing enemies or no-good elements, who may be able to extend new forces with
attention to the continuation of attacking external enemies and
burrowing inside the revolution, so as to eradicate them.
Our party see clearly our success in the elimination of
external and internal enemies in the first half of 1977. This is considered as a
historic victory following the one gain on April 17 .
At the same time, however, our party is well aware that
both external and internal enemies are still striving to fight against our
revolution. This is the nature of contradictions between revolution and
anti-revolution, between people and oppressing class, between worker class and
capitalists, between collectivism and privatization, between socialism and
capitalism, between real Marxism-Lenism and anti-revolutionary revisionists,
between self-reliance and aggression-ism, expansionism, colonialism,
imperialism, etc. This kind of antagonism exists permanently in the
international arena, particularly in our society, while opponent class exist in
the world as well as in our society.
Therefore, our party resolves that the whole party, the
whole army and the whole population must go on with both external and internal
enemies, drawing on the experiences and in compliance with the party principles
and slogans of "isolation of enemies". By doing so, [we] can gather forces as
many as possible, by strategy number 1, strategy number 2, technique number 1,
technique number 2, do whatsoever until the enemies are separated and going to
vanish from the international arena one after another.
The request for the second half of 1977 is to pay attention
to sweeping cleanly away enemies in bases, especially in
the storming attacks to achieve the plan of 3-6 tons per hectare
for the second
half of 1977.
Based on our basic preparation in combination with the
active combat in the first half of 1977, we must encourage the involvement of
reaching the goal of 3-6 tons per hectare without fail. To reach this goal, the
following issues must be notified:
First is to strengthen and extend the qualification in
terms of materials, that is, being
self-mastery in water, fertilizer, seeds, fertile soil, farming techniques
(sowing, transplanting, plowing, raking, preparing farmland, irrigation, labor
force of people, and labor force of
Second is the party's storming attacks. This is a key
issue. Continuation must be made to strengthen and extend, and improve
commanders on each battle. Go on with political, ideological, and organizational
works. Grasp hold of situations of all field, especially the issue of water so
that active involvement may happen in small, medium, and large scale: farming
mid-term rice, long term rice, and growing other secondary crops. Improve
guidelines on effective activities in all fields, such as the use of water,
organization of forces for taking care of transplanted rice, sowing and pulling
seedlings. These works must be organized according to real circumstances,
notably the use of machinery, in order that by the end of this year, these works
are done on time and in self-reliance. Sowing, transplanting, and harvesting
must be followed one another in order not to waste time.
To simply put, it requires that commanders be strong in all
fields so that 3-6 tons per hectare will be achieved from now up to December
1977, but in some places where there are objective obstacles, February
Our party determines that the rear
base must have good management of forces for diversification of crops according
to their reasons, (i.e. corn, potatoes), strategic trees for fruits, etc.
Commanders of the rear base must be organized with instructions from core
members on a daily, ten-day and monthly basis, so as to make the slogans work.
"The rear base and the front must work together to achieve the party's 3-6 tons
per hectare." "The rear base is the backbone of the front."
IV. Striving to solve and improve the people's
living standards as rationed
by the party.
Based on the party's ration, the whole party, especially
cadres who are responsible for important tasks at all levels, together with our
army and people, must endeavor to solve the people's problems of living, to
guarantee their health, particularly in three these three consecutive
months—July, August, and September. Any places where are qualified must go ahead
to achieve the party's plan, while those places where there are weaknesses, must
seek alternative solutions to fulfil the plan. For any places where meet too
many weaknesses, experiences of 1976 will be their lessons for encouraging the
involvement of settling food problems as hard as they can, based on the
standpoint of self-mastery, self-reliance, more importantly in order to build
and spread the in-depth standpoint of self-mastery and self-reliance among
[people in] the bases, army, and the party. This is a deep political and
ideological essence, which is a brilliant capital for our progress toward
self-mastery and self-reliance. The way to tackle the problem of people living
is to push [people] into growing secondary, strategic crops, including sweet
potatoes, potatoes, bean, vegetables, water grass, corn, banana, sugarcane,
papaya,...etc. By growing such crops, the problem can be settled for the time
being and for the future. Meanwhile, there must attention to the issue of rice,
which will yield in the near future. The issue of sugar is also to be solved to
improve some degree of people's living standard. Besides, there must be mutual
support within the framework of district, region, zone, and the whole country in
case of shortages of possibilities of solutions.
The party's request is that from the next year dry season,
the eating ration must be guaranteed during the whole year. Technical
preparation should be made for the purpose of a three-meal ration: breakfast
with potatoes, porridge or other foods,
plus main lunch and dinner. This plan is to be implemented from 1978.
Therefore, the plans of rice production and crop diversification must be
achieved in the rear base. Preparation of forces, cooking pots, firewood, is
also the must.
Besides food, attention must be paid to the maximum
settlement of people's living in other aspects. Improve their living standards,
health, hygiene, shelter, clothing, mosquito net, mate, blanket, cooking pots,
rice plate, drinking water (wells, small ponds must be made as many as possible
Our party sees clearly the improvement of our revolutionary
movement of Kampuchea, both in the fields of defense of the country, protection
of the revolutionary authority, workers and farmers, continuation of socialist
revolution, construction of socialism, promulgation of the influence of
Kampuchean revolution in the international arena, subjectivity and objectivity.
Thus, we are completely convinced that under the leadership of our Communist
Party of Kampuchea, with party central, revolutionary army and collective
people, being backbone, we must be able to defend the country from now till